I don’t really want to question whether Edge or Safari is better on a phone. Both seem to me to work well.
What the iPhone does offer, though, is other browsers. I’ve installed Firefox, Opera, and (ironically) Edge. Additional browsers including Chrome are available.
Edge on the Windows phone and Safari on the iPhone allow users to put shortcuts to particular sites on the explorer / finder screen. The other browsers on the iPhone do not.
I find this feature very useful, and am surprised that only Safari offers it on the iPhone. Perhaps I’m unusual in liking this option, but I regret that it’s only available in Safari.
All the same, Apple win the browser wars because they allow many of them on their phones.